Kale
Symptom Cause  
Leaves wrinkled or curled; discolored, stunted, tend to fall off
Aphids
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Leaves, stems and buds eaten
Armyworms
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Brown spots, gray centers on leaves and lower stems; stems blacken
Black Leg
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Holes in leaves
Cabbage Loopers
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Leaves chewed
Caterpillars
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Young plant severed at soil
Cutworms
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Plant chewed to soil
Deer
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White powder on leaf undersides; foliage wilts
Downy Mildew
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Tiny, black hopping insect, shot holes in foliage
Flea Beetles
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Reddish tissue on stalks and leaves; yellowing of foliage
Fusarium Wilt
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White butterflies; ragged holes in leaves, bit of green excrement on leaves
Imported Cabbageworms
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Leaves mottled yellow and green, raised dark areas; plant stunted
Mosaic Viruses
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Plants stunted, yellow
Nematodes
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Leaves coated with white powdery substance
Powdery Mildew
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Plant chewed to soil
Rabbits
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Young plants wilt in heat, may yellow and die.
Root Maggots
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Leaves notched; roots chewed
Root Weevils
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Ragged holes in leaves, often in middle
Slugs
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Water-soaked area on stem near soil; extends upward;
Watery Soft Rot
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Plant chewed to soil
Woodchucks
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