Birch, River
Symptom Cause  
Leaves curled and distorted
Aphids
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Water-soaked lesions on branches
Bacterial Canker
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Tip of leaves brown, internal larvae trails visible. Leaves can be distorted. Premature drop of leaves.
Birch Leafminers
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Leaves skeletonized
Birch Skeletonizer
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Small holes in bark and stems surrounded by sawdust
Bronze Birch Borer
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Young portions of foliage disappear, or young tips disappear, bark peeled off
Deer
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Upper branches dead
Dieback (fungus)
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On young trees foliage looks burned
Dog Urine
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Leaves blistered and curled up
Leaf Blister (fungus)
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Leaves scorch; turn tan; dry appearance
Leaf Scorch (Marginal leaf burn)
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Shelf-like growths on trunk
Lichens
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Holes in leaves
Loopers
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Tree dies suddenly
Old Age
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Bark of stems and roots gnawed
Rodent Injury
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Leaves have orange-tan powdery spots
Rust (on plants)
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Branches encrusted with small bumps
Scale Insects
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Black powdery sooty mold fungus forms on honeydew; branches may die
Sooty Mold
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Leaves stippled, yellowing or bronze; dry out and drop may be webbing visible; sometimes galls form on leaves
Spider Mites
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Tree branches break
Winter/Snow/Ice Damage
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